Louder speaker (commonly known as speakers) play a decisive role in the whole sound system. They can even affect the style of the whole sound system. Good louder speaker have their own personalities. In the car audio refitting, changing the host and loudspeaker is the most common and basic modification. The speaker is used as a restoration device to restore the sound, and the sound quality is directly expressed by the loudspeaker. That is to say, even though the whole sound system is more complicated, what we hear is only the sound of the louder speaker. The following describes the terminal equipment in the car audio loudspeaker.
(1) characteristics of car louder speaker
When you walk into a car stereo store, you will find many different types of sophisticated speakers (speakers) besides a wide range of mainframes and power amplifiers. You may think that they are the same as ordinary home stereo, but they are not. What's the difference?
The household loudspeaker is used in the room, so the temperature difference is small. While the car works outdoors, the temperature difference is large due to the changeable climate, so it is necessary to resist temperature aging.
When the car is in the rain, when walking on a waterway, or when washing the car, it will be attacked by moisture. Therefore, the car speakers need to be moisture-proof. Now, the sound basins made of chemical synthetic materials are mostly used.
The household appliance loudspeaker is used in the room, so there is less dust, but there is much dust in the car. Dust cover is needed to prevent the noise caused by voice coil friction.
The vehicle loudspeaker is subject to the vibration impact of the vehicle movement anytime and anywhere, so the design should be firm and not loose.
Considering all kinds of noise and vibration, the materials used are different, so different ways should be used to offset different noises.
In order to obtain high power, the impedance of the loudspeaker is small, so 4 Ω, 3.2 Ω and 2 Ω are used more.
(2) classification of loudspeakers
① According to the frequency of loudspeaker playback
A. Full frequency speaker: able to replay full frequency sound (20hz-22khz).
B. High pitch loudspeaker: also known as high head and tweeter. It mainly reproduces the sound of high frequency part from 6 to 22 kHz.
C. Midrange speaker: capable of reproducing 200hz-6khz sound.
D. Subwoofer: also known as subwoofer or subwoofer (16hz-200hz).
② By size
It can be divided into three types: 80 mm (3 in), 100 mm (4 in), 130 mm (5 in), 150 mm (6 in), 200 mm (8 in), 250 mm (10 in), 300 mm (12 in), etc. (Note 1 in = 25.3 mm) there are also 100 mm × 150 mm, 130 mm × 150 mm, 150 mm × 230 mm, etc. It can be selected according to the size reserved in the car.
③ By performance and use
Can be divided into: unit speaker, package speaker, coaxial speaker, subwoofer.
A. Unit Speaker:
Most of the original loudspeakers on the car are unit speakers with simple structure, which can only show the medium range. The high pitch is not bright and the bass is not thick. It is a low-grade product.
B. Package Speaker:
The set of loudspeakers is composed of high pitch speaker (megaphone), midrange speaker, frequency divider, etc. There are two kinds of frequency division: two frequency division and three frequency division. Because different loudspeakers are responsible for different frequencies, their frequency division is accurate and the frequency range is wide. Here we will introduce the frequency divider. The frequency divider connects the sound source, treble and bass to make it a system. Its function is to allocate the correct frequency to the corresponding speakers, so as to ensure that the high and medium tone speakers can perform their respective duties. Some frequency dividers are marked with 0, - 3dB, - 6dB, which is actually the attenuation circuit of a tweeter. You can choose which one to connect the treble to according to your listening preference.
Due to the excellent sound field positioning ability of the speaker package, it is generally used in the front sound field. When installing, pay attention to the distance between the tweeter and the midrange speaker, and it is better not to exceed 30cm. In case the sound is too loose. The installation position of the tweeter is particularly important. Because it will determine the position of the entire sound field.
Input is the sound source input, woo is connected to the midrange speaker, and the twe is connected to the treble speaker.
Woo and two also have mid and high. The labels of different manufacturers are different, so you should accumulate more English words (appendix at the back of the book). Only the loudspeaker of this model can be connected to the frequency divider. Do not connect other speakers randomly. Because the frequency division point and other parameters of this set of loudspeakers are well designed, if you connect other loudspeakers randomly, the effect will not meet the design requirements, or even burn out the tweeter.
C. Coaxial speaker:
It is to place the high pitch loudspeaker on the coaxial or the same chassis. The advantage of coaxial loudspeaker is that it is easy to install, and the sound source is consistent, that is, point source. The disadvantage is that the treble often "covers" the midrange; the sound is hard and the sound field is uneven, so it is generally recommended to be used as the rear sound field speaker. In practice, the performance of 150 mm × 230 mm coaxial loudspeaker is still good.
Generally, it is more than 200 mm, and it is installed in the special bass box. The smaller the size of the bass speaker, the harder and more crisp the sound effect; the larger the size, the deeper the sound effect and the heavier the aftersound.
At present, the market uses a ready-made subwoofer to do bass, which saves the trouble of making speakers, but the effect is not as good as that of speakers. Subwoofer is just a low-end product. Subwoofers can be divided into active and passive subwoofers. Active subwoofer is a kind of built-in power amplifier with independent power supply to drive subwoofer. The passive subwoofer has no built-in power amplifier, and the subwoofer is driven directly by the vehicle power amplifier.
Bass can greatly improve the listening experience in the car. Especially in high-speed driving, the bass will be greatly reduced. It is necessary to add a bass system. Subwoofer can be divided into single voice coil and double voice coil. Its impedance has 2 Ω, 4 Ω, 6 Ω, 8 Ω, 6 Ω, which is commonly used in European louder speaker.